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Titanium forms a resonant level in the conduction band of PbTe

: König, J.; Nielsen, M.; Gao, Y.; Winkler, M.; Jacquot, A.; Böttner, H.; Heremans, J.


Physical Review. B 84 (2011), No.20, Art. 205126, 5 pp.
ISSN: 0163-1829
ISSN: 1098-0121
ISSN: 0556-2805
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IPM ()
Ti-doped PbTe; fermi-level pinning; thermoelectrics; resonant impurity levels

Titanium is a donor in PbTe, leading to electron concentrations up to n about 1 × 10(exp 19) cm-3, above which it pins the Fermi level at about 52 meV above the conduction-band edge. While Ti is thus a resonant level, it does not enhance the thermopower above that of similarly doped PbTe, suggesting that the electrons on Ti are localized. Delocalized electrons appear again when the Ti concentration is increased so that 1 × 10(exp 19) cm-3 < n < 1 × 10(exp 20) cm-3, suggesting the appearance of impurity-band conduction. The PbTe:Ti system is analogous to the well-studied HgSe:Fe system. A model for Fermi-level pinning is proposed that is based on the chemical equilibrium between different ionization states of the donor impurity.