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In-Line High-Rate Deposition of Aluminum Onto RISE Solar Cells by Electron Beam Technology

: Heinß, J.P.; Mader, C.; Merkle, A.; Brendemühl, T.; Brendel, R.; Ehlers, L.; Meyer, R.


European Commission:
26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, EU PVSEC. Proceedings : 5th to 9th September 2011 at the CCH - Congress Centre and International Fair Hamburg in Germany
München: WIP-Renewable Energies, 2011
ISBN: 3-936338-27-2
European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PVSEC) <26, 2011, Hamburg>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer FEP ()
aluminum; back contact; electron beam evaporation; high deposition rate

This paper presents results on the contact formation to Rear Interdigitated Single Evaporation Emitter Wrap Through (RISE EWT) solar cells by electron beam high-rate evaporation of aluminum. In stationary depositions water cooled copper crucible and ceramic crucibles were used. The ceramic crucibles were found to be best suitable when regarding the electron beam power and the upper limit of the solar cell temperature of 400 °C. Using an in-line high-rate deposition equipment 20 ?m-thick aluminum layers were deposited at dynamic deposition rates of 3.6 ?m×m/min from ceramic crucibles onto RISE EWT solar cells. The cell temperature during deposition was measured and analyzed using 2-dimensional finite-element (FEM) simulations. The processed RISE EWT solar cells present efficiencies of up to 18.4 %, which equals the cell efficiencies of reference solar cells that are contacted at lower deposition rates at lab scale.