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The creation of a biomimetic interface between boron-doped diamond and immobilized proteins

: Hoffmann, R.; Kriele, A.; Obloh, H.; Tokuda, N.; Smirnov, W.; Yang, N.; Nebel, C.E.


Biomaterials 32 (2011), No.30, pp.7325-7332
ISSN: 0142-9612
ISSN: 1878-5905
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IAF ()
biomimetic material; protein adsorption; diamond; AFM; electrochemistry; surface treatment

Immobilization of proteins on a solid electrode is to date done by chemical cross-linking or by addition of an adjustable intermediate. In this paper we introduce a concept where a solid with variable surface properties is optimized to mediate binding of the electron-transfer protein Cytochrome c (Cyt c) by mimicking the natural binding environment. It is shown that, as a carbon-based material, boron-doped diamond can be adjusted by simple electrochemical surface treatments to the specific biochemical requirements of Cyt c. The structure and functionality of passively adsorbed Cyt c on variously terminated diamond surfaces were characterized in detail using a combination of electrochemical techniques and atomic force microscopy with single-molecule resolution. Partially oxidized diamond allowed stable immobilization of Cyt c together with high electron transfer activity, driven by a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. This surface mimics the natural binding partner, where coarse orientation is governed by electrostatic interaction of the protein’s dipole and hydrophobic interactions assist in formation of the electron transfer complex. The optimized surface mediated electron transfer kinetics around 100 times faster than those reported for other solids and even faster kinetics than on self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols.