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Image simulation of projection systems in photolithography

: Evanschitzky, Peter; Fühner, Tim; Erdmann, Andreas

Postprint urn:nbn:de:0011-n-1708972 (1.2 MByte PDF)
MD5 Fingerprint: 331cca5f3dae5da87048fbd79c4de2a9
Copyright 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.
Created on: 24.2.2012

Bodermann, B. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Modeling aspects in optical metrology III : 23 - 24 May 2011, Munich, Germany; Part of the SPIE Optical Metrology Symposium
Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 2011 (Proceedings of SPIE 8083)
ISBN: 978-0-8194-8679-0
Paper 80830E
Conference on Modeling Aspects in Optical Metrology <3, 2011, Munich>
Optical Metrology Symposium <2011, Munich>
Conference Paper, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IISB ()
lithography simulation; image simulation; image modeling; Abbe approach

The well-established Abbe formulation is one of today's most common approaches for the accurate image simulation of partial coherent projection systems used in semiconductor lithography. The development and application of lithographic imaging systems close to the theoretical resolution limits and the desire for the simulation of larger mask areas with high accuracy require several extensions of the classical Abbe approach. This paper presents the basics of the Abbe approach including the so-called Hopkins assumption. For the accurate simulation of today's lithography systems important physical effects like strong off-axis illumination, small feature sizes, ultra-high NAs, a polarization dependent behavior, imaging demagnification, aberrations, apodizations, and Jones pupils have to be described and taken into account. The resulting extensions of the Abbe approach are presented. The accuracy, flexibility, and computational performance of the new approach are demonstrated by application examples.