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Active shape models unleashed

: Kirschner, Matthias; Wesarg, Stefan


Dawant, B.M. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Medical Imaging 2011. Image Processing. Pt.1 : 14 February 2011, Lake Buena Vista, Florida
Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 2011 (Proceedings of SPIE 7623)
ISBN: 978-0-8194-8504-5
ISSN: 1605-7422
Paper 796211
Medical Imaging Symposium <2011, Lake Buena Vista/Fla.>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer IGD ()
active shape model (ASM); segmentation; statistical shape models (SSM); Forschungsgruppe Medical Computing (MECO)

Active Shape Models (ASMs) are a popular family of segmentation algorithms which combine local appearance models for boundary detection with a statistical shape model (SSM). They are especially popular in medical imaging due to their ability for fast and accurate segmentation of anatomical structures even in large and noisy 3D images. A well-known limitation of ASMs is that the shape constraints are over-restrictive, because the segmentations are bounded by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) subspace learned from the training data.
To overcome this limitation, we propose a new energy minimization approach which combines an external image energy with an internal shape model energy. Our shape energy uses the Distance From Feature Space (DFFS) concept to allow deviations from the PCA subspace in a theoretically sound and computationally fast way. In contrast to previous approaches, our model does not rely on post-processing with constrained free-form deformation or additional complex local energy models. In addition to the energy minimization approach, we propose a new method for liver detection, a new method for initializing an SSM and an improved k-Nearest Neighbour (kNN)-classifier for boundary detection. Our ASM is evaluated with leave-one-out tests on a data set with 34 tomographic CT scans of the liver and is compared to an ASM with standard shape constraints. The quantitative results of our experiments show that we achieve higher segmentation accuracy with our energy minimization approach than with standard shape constraints.