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Large area crystalline silicon solar cells with pad printed front side metallisation

: Huljic, D.M.; Hirth, E.; Lüdemann, R.; Willeke, G.

McNelis, B. ; WIP - Renewable Energies, München:
17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference 2001. Vol.2 : Proceedings of the international conference held in Munich, Germany, 22 - 26, October 2001
München: WIP-Renewable Energies, 2002
ISBN: 3-936338-07-8
ISBN: 88-900442-3-3
European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference <17, 2001, München>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Siliziumsolarzellen; Dickfilm-Kontakte; pad printing

Pad printing represents a promising technique having the potential to outperform conventional screen printing regarding technological and economical aspects. As this technique is based on metallisation pastes, pad printed contacts are compatible with present industrial solar cell production. Focusing on front contacts, line widths down to ~30 µm have been realised even for double printing using a modified screen printing paste. This shows the fine line ability of this technique. Further, the pad printing process has been adapted and for the first time used to print a front grid of 10x10 cm² cells. However, cell performance is still limited by the low paste transfer to the wafer, resulting in fill factors of 64 %. Three approaches are presented to deal with this challenge: Multiple printing, contact thickening, and a single print of very fine lines. However, the latter approach requires a pad printing paste.