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Direct bonding of glass substrates

: Kalkowski, G.; Rohde, M.; Risse, S.; Eberhardt, R.; Tünnermann, A.


Colinge, C. ; Electrochemical Society -ECS-:
Semiconductor Wafer Bonding 11. Science, Technology, and Applications : In honor of Ulrich Gösele; Presented in the symposium entitled "Semiconductor Wafer Bonding 11: Science, Technology, and Applications - in Honor of Ulrich Gösele" held during the 218th meeting of the Electrochemical Society, in Las Vegas, Nevada from October 10 to 15, 2010
Pennington, NJ: ECS, 2010 (ECS transactions 33.2010, Nr.4)
ISBN: 978-1-566-77823-7
ISBN: 978-1-60768-173-1
ISSN: 1938-5862
International Symposium on Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science, Technology, and Applications <11, 2010, Las Vegas/Nev.>
Electrochemical Society (Meeting) <218, 2010, Las Vegas/Nev.>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer IOF ()

We report on investigations of direct bonding of glass materials for application as optical devices or high precision mechanical stages under vacuum. SiO2 (fused silica) wafers of about 0.8 mm thickness and 200mm diameter were bonded to massive SiO2 substrates of up to 20 mm thickness. With suitable wet cleaning and a low pressure Nitrogen plasma surface activation, rather high quality (optically transparent) bonds were obtained. Successful bonding was achieved at relatively low temperatures of about 250°Celsius in vacuum under compressive forces of several tens of kN, using a commercial bond equipment. Remaining bonding defects were analyzed by transmitting polarized light and measuring stress birefringence. At particle related defects in the bonding area, stress levels of the order of 0.2 MPa were discerned. Small unbound regions typically emerged at locations where no significant pressure was applied during the bonding process. Crack-opening indicated a bonding strength of about 0.6 J/m².