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High-frequency gratings as polarization elements


Lee, S.H. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Micromachine Technology for Diffractive and Holographic Optics
Bellingham, Wash.: SPIE, 1999 (SPIE Proceedings Series 3879)
ISBN: 0-8194-3476-0
Conference on Micromachine Technology for Diffractive and Holographic Optics <1999, Santa Clara/Calif.>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer HHI ()
diffraction gratings; micro-optics; optical beam splitters; optical fabrication; optical polarisers; high-frequency gratings; polarization elements; binary gratings; feature size; illumination wavelength; quartz glass; microstructuring techniques; rigorous coupled wave analysis; polarizing beam splitters; phase retardation plates; high frequency polarization gratings; polarization selective beam splitting elements; diffraction efficiencies; te polarization; tm polarization; phase retarding elements; fabrication process; high frequency binary phase gratings; 650 nm; 140 nm

Binary gratings with feature sizes smaller than the illumination wavelength were fabricated in quartz glass by means of microstructuring techniques. Using rigorous coupled wave analysis polarization elements like polarizing beam splitters and phase retardation plates were designed for operation in transmission at the wavelength of 650 nm. High frequency polarization gratings with feature sizes down to 140 nm and aspect ratios up to 7 were realized. For the polarization selective beam splitting elements we measured diffraction efficiencies of about 80% in the -1st order for TE polarization, and 90% in the 0th order for TM polarization. The values are in good agreement with the theoretical values. Furthermore we realized phase retarding elements e.g. lambda /8-plates which showed a phase difference of Phi =44.8 degrees ( Phi theor.=45 degrees ) between TE and TM polarized light. The design and the fabrication process as well as the optical properties of our high frequency binary phase gratings will be presented. Experimental results will be compared with theoretical values.