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Effects of Cu contents in Pb-free solder alloys on interfacial reactions and bump reliability of Pb-free solder bumps on electroless Ni-P under-bump metallurgy

: Jeon, Y.D.; Paik, K.W.; Ostmann, A.; Reichl, H.


Journal of Electronic Materials 34 (2005), No.1, pp.80-90
ISSN: 0361-5235
ISSN: 1543-186X
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IZM ()

Using the screen-printed solder-bumping technique on the electroless plated Ni-P under-bump metallurgy (UBM) is potentially a good method because of cost effectiveness. As SnAgCu Pb-free solders become popular, demands for understanding of interfacial reactions between electroless Ni-P UBMs and Cu-containing Pb-free solder bumps are increasing. It was found that typical Ni-Sn reactions between the electroless Ni-P UBM and Sn-based solders were substantially changed by adding small amounts of Cu in Sn-based Pb-free solder alloys. In Cu-containing solder bumps, the (Cu,Ni)(6)Sn-5 phase formed during initial reflow, followed by (Ni,Cu)(3)Sn-4 phase formation during further reflow and aging. The Sn3.5Ag solder bumps showed a much faster electroless Ni-P UBM consumption rate than Cu-containing solder bumps: Sn4.0Ag0.5Cu and Sn0.7Cu. The initial formation of the (Cu,Ni)(6)Sn-5 phase in SnAgCu and SnCu solders significantly reduced the consumption of the Ni-P UBM. The more Cu-containing solder showed slower consumption rate of the Ni-P UBM than the less Cu-containing solder below 300degreesC heat treatments. The growth rate of the (Cu,Ni)(6)Sn-5 intermetallic compound (IMC) should be determined by substitution of Ni atoms into the Cu sublattice in the solid (Cu,Ni)(6)Sn-5 IMC. The Cu contents in solder alloys only affected the total amount of the (Cu,Ni)(6)Sn-5 IMC. More Cu-containing solders were recommended to reduce consumption of the Ni-based UBM. In addition, bump shear strength and failure analysis were performed using bump shear test.