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The impact of auxiliary energy on the efficiency of the heating and cooling system: Monitoring of low-energy buildings

: Kalz, D.E.; Herkel, S.; Wagner, A.


Energy and buildings 41 (2009), No.10, pp.1019-1030
ISSN: 0378-7788
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Energieeffiziente und solare Kühlung; Gebäudekonzepte

This paper presents a detailed meta-analysis of end and primary energy use for heating, cooling and ventilation of I I low-energy non-residential buildings and one residential building in Germany that belong to the EnOB research program launched by the German Federal Ministry for Economy. In particular, the analysis emphasizes the substantial impact of auxiliary energy use on the efficiency of heating and cooling performance. The investigated buildings employ environmental energy sources and sinks - such as the ground, ground water, rainwater and the ambient air - in combination with thermo-active building systems. These concepts are promising approaches for slashing the primary energy use of buildings without violating occupant thermal comfort. A limited primary energy use of about 100 kWh(prim)/m(ner)(2)a) as a target for the complete building service technology (HVAC and lighting) was postulated for all buildings presented. With respect to this premise, a comprehensive long-term monitoring in high time resolution was carried out over the course of two to five years, with an accompanying commissioning of the building performance. Measurements include the energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation, as well as the auxiliary equipment, the performance of the environmental heat source and sink, and local climatic site conditions.