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Recombinant CD64-specific single chain immunotoxin exhibits specific cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia cells

: Tur, M.K.; Huhn, M.; Thepen, T.; Stocker, M.; Krohn, R.; Vogel, S.; Jost, E.; Osieka, R.; Winkel, J.G. van de; Fischer, R.; Finnern, R.; Barth, S.

Cancer research 63 (2003), No.23, pp.8414-8419
ISSN: 0008-5472
ISSN: 1538-7445
ISSN: 0099-7013
ISSN: 0099-7374
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IME ()

CD64, the high affinity receptor for IgG (FcgammaRI) is expressed on acute myeloid leukemia blast cells and has recently been described as a specific target for immunotherapy. To generate a recombinant immunotoxin, the anti-CD64 single chain fragment (scFv) m22 was cloned into the bacterial expression vector pBM1.1 and fused to a deletion mutant of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA'). Genetically modified Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3) were grown under osmotic stress conditions in the presence of compatible solutes. After isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside induction, the 70-kDa His(10)-tagged m22(scFv)-ETA' was directed into the periplasmic space and purified by a combination of metal-ion affinity and molecular size-chromatography. The characteristics of the recombinant protein were assessed by ELISA, flow cytometry, and toxicity assays, using CD64-positive AML cells. Binding specificity of m22(scFv)-ETA' was verified by competition with the parental anti-CD64 monoclonal antibody m22. The recombinant immunotoxin showed significant toxicity toward the CD64-positive cell lines HL-60 and U937 reaching 50% inhibition of cell proliferation at a concentration (IC50) of 11.6 ng/ml against HL-60 cells and 12.9 ng/ml against U937 cells. Approximately 41% of primary leukemia cells from a patient with CD64-positive AML were driven into early apoptosis by m22(scFv)-ETA' as measured by flow cytometric analysis. This is the first article documenting the specific cytotoxicity of a novel recombinant immunotoxin with major implications for immunotherapy of CD64-positive diseases.