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Fault localization and functional testing of ICs by lock-in thermography

: Breitenstein, O.; Rakotoniaina, J.P.; Altmann, F.; Schulz, J.; Linse, G.

Electronic Device Failure Analysis Society -EDFAS-, Materials Park/Ohio:
28th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis 2002. Proceedings : 3 - 7 November 2002, Phoenix Civic Center, Phoenix, Arizona
Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International, 2002
ISBN: 0-87170-771-3
International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis (ISTFA) <28, 2002, Phoenix/Ariz.>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer IWM ()

In this paper new thermographic techniques with significant improved temperature and/or spatial resolution are presented and compared with existing techniques. In infrared (IR) lock-in thermography heat sources in an electronic device are periodically activated electrically, and the surface is imaged by a free-running IR camera. By computer processing and averaging the images over a certain acquisition time, a surface temperature modulation below 100 K can be resolved. Moreover, the effective spatial resolution is considerably improved compared to stead-state thermal imaging techniques, since the lateral heat diffusion is suppressed in this a.c. technique. However, a serious limitation is that the spatial resolution is limited to about 5 microns due to the IR wavelength range of 3 -5 m used by the IR camera. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that lock-in thermography reliably allows the detection of defects in ICs if their power exceeds some 10 W. The imaging can be performe d also through the silicon substrate from the backside of the chip. Also the well-known fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI) technique can be be used in lock-in mode, leading to a temperature resolution in the mK range, but a spatial resolution below 1 micron.