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Occurrence of phthalates and bisphenol A and F in the environment

: Fromme, H.; Küchler, T.; Otto, T.; Pilz, K.; Müller, J.; Wenzel, A.


Water Research 36 (2002), pp.1429-1438
ISSN: 0043-1354
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IME ()
xenoestrogen; bisphenol; phthalates; surface water; sediment; sewage sludge; liquid manure; dump water

Certain xenoestrogens, namely bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), were measured in various compartments (surface water, sediments, sewage treatment plant effluents, sewage sludge, dump water, liquid manure) in order to contribute to a better understanding of exposure to these compounds in different environments. Hundred and sixteen surface-water samples and 35 sediments from rivers, lakes and channels, 39 sewage effluents, and 38 sewage sludges were collected in Germany. Furthermore, ten liquid manure, two waste-dump and two compost-runoff water samples were also analysed. BPA measurements showed low concentrations from 0.0005 to 0.41 mu g L (exp -1) in surface water, in sewage effluents from 0.018 to 0.702 mu L (exp -1), in sediments from 0.01 to 0.19 mg kg (exp -1) and in sewage sludge from 0.004 to 1.363 mg kg (exp -1) dw. Measured concentrations of BPF were clearly lower than BPA in all environmental media. DEHP dominated the phthalate concentrations, which ranged from 0.33 to 97.8 mu L (exp -1) (surface water), 1.74 to 182 mu L (exp -1) (sewage effluents), 27.9 to 154 mg kg (exp -1) dw (sewage sludge) and 0.21 to 8.44 mg kg (exp -1) (sediment). DBP was found only in minor concentrations and BBP, only in a few samples in low amounts. Very high concentrations of BPA and phthalates were confirmed in waste dump water and compost water samples as well as in the liquid manure samples.