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Carbon nanotubes produced by high energy (E greater than 100MeV), heavy ion irradiation of graphite

: Biro, L.P.; Szabo, B.; Mark, G.I.; Gyulai, J.; Havancsak, K.; Kurti, J.; Dunlop, A.; Frey, L.; Ryssel, H.


Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research, Section B. Beam interactions with materials and atoms 148 (1999), No.1-4, pp.1002-1005
ISSN: 0168-583X
International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials <11, 1998, Amsterdam>
Journal Article, Conference Paper
Fraunhofer IIS B ( IISB) ()
atomic force microscope; carbon nanotubes; graphite; ion beam effects; krypton; scanning tunnelling microscopy

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to investigate the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) irradiated with 209 MeV Kr or 830 MeV U ions. The density of hillocks found on samples irradiated by Kr and U ions indicates synergism of electronic and nuclear stopping processes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found on all of the investigated samples, STM images show an atomic arrangement identical with that of graphite. AFM revealed sputtering craters from which emerge CNTs, the vibration of some CNTs was observed.