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AFM and STM investigation of carbon nanotubes produced by high energy ion irradiation of graphite

: Biro, L.P.; Mark, G.I.; Gyulai, J.; Havancszak, K.; Lipp, S.; Lehrer, C.; Frey, L.; Ryssel, H.


Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research, Section B. Beam interactions with materials and atoms 147 (1999), No.1-4, pp.142-147
ISSN: 0168-583X
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IIS B ( IISB) ()
atomic force microscope; carbon nanotubes; ion beam effects; scanning tunnelling microscopy; sputtering; surface topography

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were produced by high energy, heavy ion irradiation (215 MeV Ne, 246 MeV Kr, 156 MeV Xe) of graphite. On samples irradiated with Kr and Xe ions large craters were found by atomic force microscopy, these are attributed to sputtering. Frequently one or several CNTs emerge from the craters. Some of the observed CNTs showed a regular vibration pattern. No other carbon based materials, like amorphous carbon or fullerenes were evidenced. Focused ion beam cuts were used to compare CNTs with surface folds on graphite.