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Oriented and vectorial immobilization of linear M13 dsDNA between interdigitated electrodes - towards single molecule DNA nanostructures

: Hölzel, R.; Gajovic-Eichelmann, N.; Bier, F.F.


Turner, A.P.F.:
Seventh World Congress on Biosensors 2002. Selected papers : Kyoto, Japan 15 - 17 May 2002
New York, NY: Elsevier, 2003 (Biosensors & bioelectronics 18.2003,5/6. Special issue)
World Congress on Biosensors <7, 2002, Kyoto>
Conference Paper, Journal Article
Fraunhofer IBMT ()

The ability to control molecules at a resolution well below that offered by photolithography has gained much interest recently. DNA is a promising candidate for this task since it offers excellent specificity in base-pairing combined with addressability at the nanometer scale. New applications in biosensing, e.g. interaction analysis at the single molecule level, or nanobiotechnology, e.g. ultradense DNA microarrays, have been devised that rely on stretched DNA bridges. The basic technology required is the ability to deposit spatially defined, stretched DNA-bridges between anchoring structures on surfaces. In this paper we present two techniques for spanning 2 mu m long dsDNA bridges between neighboring interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The extended DNA used was linearized M13 dsDNA (M13mp 18 7231 bp, ca. 2.5 mu m length), either unmodified, or with chemical modifications at both ends. The first approach is based on the dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration and alignment of linearized wild-type dsDNA. IDEs with 1.7 pin spacing are driven with an AC voltage around 1 MHz leading to field strengths in the order of 1 MV m/sup -1/. The dsDNA is polarized and linearized by the force field and accumulates in the gap between two neighboring electrodes. This process is reversible and was visualized by fluorescence staining of M13 DNA using PicoGreen TM , as intercalating dye. The resulting dsDNA bridges and their orientation are discernible under the fluorescence microscope using fluorescent particles of different color. The particles are tagged with sequence specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes that bind to the DNA double strand at specific sites. The second approach is based on asymmetric electrochemical modification of a gold IDE with 2.0 mu m spacings followed by spontaneous or stimulated deposition of a chemically modified M13-DNA. One side of the IDE was selectively coated with streptavidin by electropolymerization of a novel hydrophilic conductive polymer in the presence of the binding protein. The second side was modified with gold nanoparticles by reductive plating from aqueous gold chloride solution. An asymmetric double stranded (ds) M13 DNA carrying a 5-thiol group at one end and a 5'-biotin at the other end was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two differently labeled primers. For DNA bridges to form spontaneously the modified IDE was incubated over night with a 50 nM solution of the modified M13 DNA.. Potential applications of DNA-bridge formation in biosensing and biotechnology are discussed.