Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft

Publica

Hier finden Sie wissenschaftliche Publikationen aus den Fraunhofer-Instituten.
2019Correlation of defect luminescence and recombination in multicrystalline silicon
Wyller, Guro Marie; Schindler, Florian; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schön, Jonas; Olsen, Espen; Haug, Halvard; Riepe, Stephan; Schubert, Martin C.
Journal Article
2019Quantitative Local Loss Analysis of Blade-Coated Perovskite Solar Cells
Mundt, L.; Kwapil, W.; Yakoob, M.A.; Herterich, J.P.; Kohlstädt, M.; Würfel, U.; Schubert, M.C.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2019Suns-ILIT: Contact-Less Determination of Local solar Cell Current-Voltage Characteristics
Kwapil, W.; Wasmer, S.; Fell, A.; Greulich, J.G.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2018High-Performance p-Type Multicrystalline Silicon (mc-Si): Its characterization and Projected Performance in PERC Solar Cells
Altermatt, P.; Xiong, Z.; He, Q.; Deng, W.; Ye, F.; Yang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Feng, Z.; Verlinden, P.J.; Liu, A.; Macdonald, D.H.; Luka, T.; Lausch, D.; Turek, M.; Hagendorf, C.; Wagner-Mohnsen, H.; Schön, J.; Kwapil, W.; Frühauf, F.; Breitenstein, O.; Looney, E.E.; Buonassisi, T.; Needleman, D.B.; Jackson, C.M.; Arehart, A.R.; Ringel, S.A.; McIntosh, K.R.; Abbott, M.D.; Sudbury, B.A.; Zuschlag, A.
Journal Article
2018Limiting Effects in Crystalline Silicon for High-Efficiency Solar Cells
Niewelt, T.; Richter, A.; Eberle, R.; Post, R.; Schön, J.; Schindler, F.; Hermle, M.; Kwapil, W.; Schubert, M.
Presentation
2018Moving Beyond p-Type mc-Si: Quantified Measurements of Iron Content and Lifetime of Iron-Rich Precipitates in n-Type Silicon
Morishige, A.E.; Heinz, F.D.; Laine, H.S.; Schön, J.; Kwapil, W.; Lai, B.; Savin, H.; Schubert, M.C.; Buonassisi, T.
Journal Article
2018Suns-ILIT: Accurate method for non-contacted local IV measurements
Kwapil, W.; Wasmer, S.; Fell, A.; Greulich, J.M.; Schubert, M.C.
Conference Paper
2018Taking monocrystalline silicon to the ultimate lifetime limit
Niewelt, Tim; Richter, Armin; Kho, T.C.; Grant, N.E.; Bonilla, R.S.; Steinhauser, Bernd; Polzin, Jana-Isabelle; Feldmann, Frank; Hermle, Martin; Murphy, J.D.; Phang, S.P.; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schubert, Martin C.
Journal Article
2018Taking Monocrystalline Silicon to the Ultimate Lifetime Limit
Niewelt, T.; Richter, A.; Kho, T.; Grant, N.; Bonilla, R.; Steinhauser, B.; Polzin, J.-I.; Feldmann, F.; Hermle, M.; Murphy, J.; Phang, S.; Kwapil, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Presentation
2018Temperature dependent imaging of solar cell losses
Eberle, R.; Kwapil, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Conference Paper
2017Characterization of light-activated Cu defects in silicon: Comparison with the recombination activity of metallic precipitates
Inglese, A.; Vahlman, H.; Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Savin, H.
Journal Article, Conference Paper
2017Effect of low-temperature annealing on defect causing copper-related light-induced degradation in p-type silicon
Vahlmann, H.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Yli-Koski, M.; Inglese, A.; Modanese, C.; Savin, H.
Journal Article, Conference Paper
2017Firing temperature profile impact on light induced degradation in multicrystalline silicon
Eberle, R.; Kwapil, W.; Schindler, F.; Glunz, S.W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article, Conference Paper
2017Kinetics of carrier-induced degradation at elevated temperature in multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Kwapil, W.; Niewelt, T.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2017Light-induced activation and deactivation of bulk defects in boron-doped float-zone silicon
Niewelt, T.; Selinger, M.; Grant, N.; Kwapil, W.M.; Murphy, J.D.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2017Long-term stability of aluminum oxide based surface passivation schemes under illumination at elevated temperatures
Niewelt, T.; Kwapil, W.M.; Selinger, M.; Richter, A.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2017Modeling of light-induced degradation due to Cu precipitation in p-type silicon. Pt.I: General theory of precipitation under carrier injection
Vahlman, H.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Inglese, A.; Savin, H.
Journal Article
2017Modeling of light-induced degradation due to Cu precipitation in p-type silicon. Pt.II: Comparison of simulations and experiments
Vahlman, H.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Inglese, A.; Savin, H.
Journal Article
2017Stability of effective lifetime of float-zone silicon wafers with AlOx surface passivation schemes under illumination at elevated temperature
Niewelt, T.; Kwapil, W.; Selinger, M.; Richter, A.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article, Conference Paper
2017Understanding the light-induced degradation at elevated temperatures: Similarities between multicrystalline and floatzone p-type silicon
Niewelt, T.; Schindler, F.; Kwapil, W.; Eberle, R.; Schön, J.; Schubert, M.C.
Conference Paper
2016Impact of the Firing Temperature Profile on Light Induced Degradation of Multicrystalline Silicon
Eberle, R.; Kwapil, W.; Schindler, F.; Schubert, M.C.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2016Spatially resolved analysis of light induced degradation of multicrystalline PERC solar cells
Selinger, M.; Kwapil, W.; Schindler, F.; Krauß, K.; Fertig, F.; Michl, B.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article, Conference Paper
2015Carrier recombination at metallic precipitates in p-and n-type silicon
Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2015Identification of the most relevant metal impurities in mc n-type silicon for solar cells
Schön, J.; Schindler, F.; Kwapil, W.; Knörlein, M.; Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article, Conference Paper
2015Potential gain in multicrystalline silicon solar cell efficiency by n-Type doping
Schindler, F.; Michl, B.; Kleiber, A.; Steinkemper, H.; Schön, J.; Kwapil, W.; Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2015Preciptitate-Related Injection-Dependent Carrier Lifetime in n- and p-Type Silicon
Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Conference Paper, Journal Article
2014Efficiency-limiting recombination in multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Schubert, M.C.; Schön, J.; Abdollahinia, A.; Michl, B.; Kwapil, W.; Schindler, F.; Heinz, F.; Padilla, M.; Giesecke, J.; Breitwieser, M.; Riepe, S.; Warta, W.
Conference Paper
2014Impact of iron precipitates on carrier lifetime in as-grown and phosphorus-gettered multicrystalline silicon wafers in model and experiment
Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Schindler, F.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.
Journal Article
2014Localization and characterization of annealing-induced shunts in Ni-plated monocrystalline silicon solar cells
Büchler, A.; Kluska, S.; Kasemann, M.; Breitwieser, M.; Kwapil, W.; Hähnel, A.; Blumtritt, H.; Hopman, S.; Glatthaar, M.
Journal Article
2014The potential of multicrystalline n-type silicon for high efficiency solar cells
Schindler, F.; Michl, B.; Kleiber, A.; Steinkemper, H.; Schön, J.; Kwapil, W.; Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Conference Paper
2014Solar cell efficiency losses due to impurities from the crucible in multicrystalline silicon
Schindler, F.; Michl, B.; Schön, J.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.
Journal Article
2013Electron microscope verification of prebreakdown-inducing alpha-FeSi2 needles in multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Hähnel, A.; Bauer, J.; Blumtritt, H.; Breitenstein, O.; Lausch, D.; Kwapil, W.
Journal Article
2013Impact of impurities from crucible and coating on mc-silicon quality - the example of iron and cobalt
Schubert, M.C.; Schön, J.; Schindler, F.; Kwapil, W.; Abdollahinia, A.; Michl, B.; Riepe, S.; Schmid, C.; Schumann, M.; Meyer, S.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2013Influence of surface texture on the defect-induced breakdown behavior of multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Kwapil, W.; Nievendick, J.; Zuschlag, A.; Gundel, P.; Schubert, M.C.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2013Material limitations due to crucible impurities in multicrystalline silicon for high efficiency solar cells
Schindler, F.; Michl, B.; Schön, J.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Conference Paper
2012Comments on the paper "Detection and analysis of hot-spot formation in solar cells" published by M. Simon and E.L. Meyer in Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 94 (2010) 106113
Bauer, J.; Kwapil, W.; Lausch, D.; Schubert, M.C.; Warta, W.; Bothe, K.; Breitenstein, O.
Journal Article
2012Influence of crucible and coating on the contamination of directionally solidified silicon
Kwapil, W.; Zuschlag, A.; Reis, I.; Schwirtlich, I.; Meyer, S.; Zierer, R.; Krain, R.
Conference Paper
2012Modeling majority carrier mobility in compensated crystalline silicon for solar cells
Schindler, F.; Schubert, M.C.; Kimmerle, A.; Broisch, J.; Rein, S.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.
Journal Article, Conference Paper
2011Can luminescence imaging replace lock-in thermography on solar cells?
Breitenstein, O.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.; Kwapil, W.; Müller, J.; Hinken, D.; Bothe, K.; Bauer, J.
Journal Article
2011Hall mobility in multicrystalline silicon
Schindler, F.; Geilker, J.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2011Influence of trench structures induced by texturization on the breakdown voltage of multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Nievendick, J.; Kwapil, W.; Rentsch, J.
Conference Paper
2011Light-induced degradation in compensated p- and n-type Czochralski silicon wafers
Geilker, J.; Kwapil, W.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2011Research on efficiency limiting defects and defect engineering in silicon solar cells - results of the German research cluster SolarFocus
Riepe, S.; Reis, I.E.; Kwapil, W.; Falkenberg, M.A.; Schön, J.; Behnken, H.; Bauer, J.; Kreßner-Kiel, D.; Seifert, W.; Koch, W.
Journal Article
2011Understanding junction breakdown in multicrystalline solar cells
Breitenstein, O.; Bauer, J.; Bothe, K.; Kwapil, W.; Lausch, D.; Rau, U.; Schmidt, J.; Schneemann, M.; Schubert, M.C.; Wagner, J.-M.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2010Analysis of performance limiting material properties of multicrystalline silicon
Schubert, M.C.; Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Habenicht, H.; Kasemann, M.; Gundel, P.; Blazek, M.; Warta, W.
Journal Article, Conference Paper
2010Approach to the physical origin of breakdown in silicon solar cells by optical spectroscopy
Gundel, P.; Kwapil, W.; Schubert, M.C.; Seifert, H.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2010Cause of increased currents under reverse-bias conditions of upgraded metallurgical grade multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Kwapil, W.; Wagner, M.; Schubert, M.C.; Warta, W.
Conference Paper
2010Conductivity mobility and hall mobility in compensated multicrystalline silicon
Schindler, F.; Geilker, J.; Kwapil, W.; Giesecke, J.; Schubert, M.C.; Warta, W.
Conference Paper
2010Cz Silicon Wafers and Solar Cells from Compensated Solar-Grade Silicon-Feedstock: Potential and Challenges
Rein, S.; Geilker, J.; Kwapil, W.; Emanuel, G.; Reis, I.; Soiland, A.-K.; Grandum, S.; Tronstad, R.
Conference Paper
2010Cz-silicon wafers and solar cells from compensated solar-grade silicon feedstock: Potential and challenges
Rein, S.; Geilker, J.; Kwapil, W.; Emanuel, G.; Reis, I.; Soiland, A.-K.; Grandum, S.; Tronstad, R.
Conference Paper
2010Defect-induced breakdown in multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Breitenstein, O.; Bauer, J.; Wagner, J.-M.; Zakharov, N.; Blumtritt, H.; Lotnyk, A.; Kasemann, M.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2010Doping concentration and mobility in compensated material: Comparison of different determination methods
Geilker, J.; Kwapil, W.; Reis, I.; Rein, S.
Conference Paper
2010Effect of segregation during crystallization of highly impure upgraded metallurgical silicon
Boldt, F.M.; Hampel, J.; Wencel, Y.; Kwapil, W.; Geilker, J.; Fertig, F.; Rein, S.; Reber, S.
Conference Paper
2010High net doping concentration responsible for critical diode breakdown behavior of upgraded metallurgical grade multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Kwapil, W.; Wagner, M.; Schubert, M.C.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2010High throughput via-metallization technique for multi-crystalline metal wrap through (MWT) silicon solar cells exceeding 16% efficiency
Clement, F.; Menkö, M.; Kubera, T.; Erath, D.; Hoenig, R.; Kwapil, W.; Wolke, W.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2010Imaging of metal impurities in silicon by luminescence spectroscopy and synchrotron techniques
Schubert, M.C.; Schön, J.; Gundel, P.; Habenicht, H.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.
Journal Article, Conference Paper
2010Impact of stress on recombination of metal precipitates in silicon
Gundel, P.; Schubert, M.C.; Heinz, F.D.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Reiche, M.; Weber, E.R.
Journal Article
2010The role of material quality in EWT and standard solar cells on multicrystalline standard and UMG silicon material
Schubert, M.C.; Rüdiger, M.; Michl, B.; Schindler, F.; Kwapil, W.; Giesecke, J.; Hermle, M.; Warta, W.; Ferré, R.; Wade, R.; Petter, K.
Conference Paper
2009Analysis of performance limiting material properties of multicrystalline silicon
Warta, W.; Schubert, M. C.; Habenicht, H.; Kasemann, M.; Kwapil, W.; Gundel, P.; Schön, J.
Conference Paper
2009Comparing luminescence imaging with illuminated lock-in thermography and carrier density imaging for inline inspection of silicon solar cells
Haunschild, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Kwapil, W.; Rein, S.
Conference Paper
2009Diode breakdown related to recombination active defects in block-cast multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Kwapil, W.; Kasemann, M.; Gundel, P.; Schubert, M.C.; Warta, W.; Bronsveld, P.; Coletti, G.
Journal Article
2009Gettering variation and lifetime characterization on intentionally iron, nickel and chromium contaminated multicrystalline silicon wafers
Blazek, M.; Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Warta, W.; Coletti, G.
Conference Paper
2009Impact of compensated solar-grade silicon on Czochralski silicon wafers and solar cells
Rein, S.; Kwapil, W.; Geilker, J.; Emanuel, G.; Spitz, M.; Reis, I.; Weil, A.; Biro, D.; Glatthaar, M.; Soiland, A.-K.; Enebakk, E.; Tronstad, R.
Conference Paper
2009Micro-luminescence spectroscopy on multicrystalline silicon
Gundel, P.; Schubert, M.C.; Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Reiche, M.; Savin, H.; Yli-Koski, M.; Sans, J.A.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Warta, W.; Weber, E.R.
Conference Paper
2009Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on metal precipitates in silicon
Gundel, P.; Schubert, M.C.; Kwapil, W.; Schon, J.; Reiche, M.; Savin, H.; Yli-Koski, M.; Sans, J.A.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Seifert, W.; Warta, W.; Weber, E.R.
Journal Article
2009Observation of metal precipitates at prebreakdown sites in multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Kwapil, W.; Gundel, P.; Schubert, M.C.; Heinz, F.D.; Warta, W.; Weber, E.R.; Goetzberger, A.; Martinez-Criado, G.
Journal Article
2009Physical mechanisms of breakdown in multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Kwapil, W.; Kasemann, M.; Gundel, P.; Schubert, M.C.; Warta, W.; Breitenstein, O.; Bauer, J.; Lotnyk, A.; Wagner, J.-M.; Bronsveld, P.C.P.; Coletti, G.
Conference Paper
2009Physical mechanisms of breakdown in multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Breitenstein, O.; Bauer, J.; Wagner, J.-M.; Blumtritt, H.; Lotnyk, A.; Kasemann, M.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.
Conference Paper
2009Verfahren zur Behandlung einer Halbleiterstruktur
Kwapil, W.; Glatthaar, M.; Rein, S.; Biro, D.
Patent
2009X-ray excited optical luminescence from crystalline silicon
Gundel, P.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Schubert, M.C.; Sans, J.A.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.; Weber, E.R.
Journal Article
2008Emissivity-corrected power loss calibration for lock-in thermography measurements on silicon solar cells
Kasemann, M.; Walter, B.; Meinhardt, C.; Ebser, J.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2008Gettering efficiency of backside aluminium layer and Al-Si-Eutectic
Blazek, M.; Kwapil, W.; Schön, J.; Warta, W.
Conference Paper
2008Investigations on the pre-breakdown of multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Kwapil, W.; Kasemann, M.; Giesecke, J.; Michl, B.; Warta, W.
Conference Paper
2008Luminescence imaging for the detection of shunts on silicon solar cells
Kasemann, M.; Grote, D.; Walter, B.; Kwapil, W.; Trupke, T.; Augarten, Y.; Bardos, R.A.; Pink, E.; Abbott, M.D.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2008Progress in silicon solar cell characterization with infrared imaging methods
Kasemann, M.; Kwapil, W.; Walter, B.; Giesecke, J.; Michl, B.; The, M.; Wagner, J.-M.; Bauer, J.; Schütt, A.; Carstensen, J.; Kampwerth, H.; Gundel, P.; Schubert, M.C.; Bardos, R.A.; Föll, H.; Nagel, H.; Würfel, P.; Trupke, T.; Breitenstein, O.; Warta, W.; Glunz, S.W.
Conference Paper
2008Verification of power loss mechanisms contributing to the illuminated lock-in thermography (ILIT) signal
Walter, B.; Kasemann, M.; Grote, D.; Ebser, J.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.
Conference Paper
2007Application of illuminated lock-in thermography to industrial silicon solar cells
Kwapil, W.; Kasemann, M.; Ebser, J.; Rein, S.; Warta, W.
Conference Paper
2007Processing and comprehensive characterisation of screen-printed mc-Si Metal Wrap Through (MWT) solar cells
Clement, F.; Lutsch, M.; Kubera, T.; Kasemann, M.; Kwapil, W.; Harmel, C.; Mingirulli, N.; Erath, D.; Wirth, H.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper